Italian pharmacologists specialized in inflammation research

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamine’s (NAEs), in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was induced in male rats by a single footpad injection of 200μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PEA was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 7h after injection of LPS. Another group of animals was treated with vehicle. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered as a positive control. Rats were sacrificed 16h after injection and the eyes tissues were collected for histology, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The histological evaluation of the iris-ciliary body showed an increase of neutrophilic infiltration and nuclear modification of vessel of endothelial cells. PEA treatment decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration and improved histological damage of eye tissues. In addition, PEA treatment reduced pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels, protein extravasion, and lipid peroxidation. Immunohistochemical analysis for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and nitrotyrosine showed a positive staining from LPS-injected rats. The degree of staining for ICAM-1 and nitrotyrosine was significantly reduced in eye sections from LPS-injected rats treated with PEA. In addition, an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF-κB) was also evaluated in inflamed ocular tissues by western blot. PEA strongly inhibited iNOS expression and nuclear NF-κB translocation. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that PEA reduces the degree of ocular inflammation in a rat model of EIU.

For pain relief and for inhibiting inflammation, most patients choose:

  • PEA capsules produced in the Netherlands by Russell
  • PEA tablets produced in Italy by Epitech

Palmitoylethanolamide in eye-inflammation and uveitis

Palmitoylethanolamide may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain when a painkiller as acetaminophen is used. We prefer to boost this painkilling effects either with the Italian PEA tablets, based on PEA-um or PEA-m, or by administrating the Dutch PEA capsules containing PEA-opt. Dutch capsules do not contain any chemical excipients and are 100% pure in vegetarian capsules.

Only for these the Dutch and the Italian formulations long-term safety and efficacy data gathered under the supervision of MDs are available. And only for these formulations (PEA-um, PEA-m and PEA-opt) there are currently data available proving that after intake PEA levels in the body significantly rise. Such data do not exist for me-too PEA formulations.


Impellizzeri D, Ahmad A, Bruschetta G, Di Paola R, Crupi R, Paterniti I, Esposito E, Cuzzocrea S.

The anti-inflammatory effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Aug 15;761:28-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.04.025. Epub 2015 Apr 28.