Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) ligand that exerts anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective actions. PEA is synthetized from phospholipids through the sequential actions of N-acyltransferase and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-preferring phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), and its actions are terminated by its hydrolysis by two enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA). Here, we review the impact of PEA administration in inflammatory and neurodegenerative settings and the differential role of FAAH and NAAA in controlling PEA levels. Recent studies with NAAA inhibitors put forth this enzyme as capable of increasing PEA levels in vivo in inflammatory processes, and identified it as an interesting target for drug discovery research. Thus, PEA hydrolysis inhibitors could constitute potential therapeutic alternatives in chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
Italian and Dutch PEA
Palmitoylethanolamide is especially in Italy and the USA at the moment hot for the treatment of glaucoma. We prefer treatment either with the Italian PEA tablets, based on PEA-um or PEA-m, or by administrating the Dutch PEA capsules containing PEA-opt. Dutch capsules do not contain any chemical excipients and are 100% pure in vegetarian capsules.
Only for these the Dutch and the Italian formulations long term safety and efficacy data gathered under the supervision of MDs are available. And only for these formulations (PEA-um, PEA-m and PEA-opt) there are currently data available proving that after intake PEA levels in the body significantly rise. Such data do not exist for me-too PEA formulations.
Harnessing the anti-inflammatory potential of palmitoylethanolamide.
Alhouayek M, Muccioli GG.
Drug Discov Today. 2014 Oct;19(10):1632-9. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jun 17.